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Lesson Review

Author:Jacqueline Ng
ETP Title:Using Design Thinking Methodology to Solve "Design Challenges" in the Classroom
Organization:Ericsson
ETP Type:Enhance Existing Curriculum
Grade Level(s):9,10,11,12,School Staff
Subject Area(s):Science,Mathematics,Language Arts,Foreign Language,Social Science,Special Education,Technology,Career Education,Staff Development

Lesson Abstract:

This lesson allows teachers to enhance existing curriculum by teaching students a structured, creative, and collaborative manner to problem-solve. Students will learn to use Design Thinking Methodology to provide solutions to curriculum related "Design Challenges." A "Design Challenge" is a content standard driven question that the teacher poses for the students to solve; it can be a question in a History classroom, such as, “How can we better the lives of the 3rd Estate?” or a problem in a Physics classroom, such as “What is the best design for a boat that will support X amount of weight, using only cardboard and tape, to ensure that it will not sink?” By teaching students the "Inspiration, Ideation, and Action" phases of Design Thinking, students will learn a structured method to research, synthesize, and brainstorm any problem and demonstrate understanding of the curriculum by providing a content appropriate solution.

Focal Standards

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subject

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

          7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Measurable Objectives:

Students will apply the focal standard listed as they go through the three phases (Inspiration, Ideation, and Action) of Design Thinking Methodology:

  • INSPIRATION PHASE: Students will conduct interviews as a part of the research process to solve a Design Challenge and will "Storytell" to re-state and synthesize findings from the interviews.
  • IDEATION PHASE: Using the synthesized ideas, students will undergo a brainstorm process to narrow or broaden the inquiry, following pre-stated braintstorming rules.
  • ACTION PHASE: Students will use ideas from their brainstorm to prototype a solution to the Design Challenge that will demonstrate understanding of the subject under investigation.

Assessment:

Note that this lesson is meant to teach design thinking methodology skills.  The assessments listed here were created to assess whether or not and how well students applied these skills throughout the lesson. It is not meant to assess academic content.

INSPIRATION PHASE:

1) A guided interview handout (Attachment # 4-Guided Interview) will be given to students to complete. This handout will require students to capture quotes, insights, pictures, and other relevant ideas of their interviewees.

2) Students will be asked to write their interview findings on post-its and post them to a board. They will then synthesize information by categorizing/grouping their post-it ideas and creating "How Might We..." statements that address these newly created categories. Teacher will informally assess how well students categorized/grouped their findings and whether or not they wrote relevant "How Might We" statements.

IDEATION PHASE:

1) Students will be asked to go through the brainstorm process and will be assessed by a peer who will track their ability to follow the pre-taught brainstorming rules (Attachment # 5-Brainstorm Tracker).

ACTION PHASE:

1) Students create a prototype of their solution to the Design Challenge in the form of an actual item/artifact, a written proposal, or another form of media (depending on the nature of the Design Challenge), which will be assessed by the teacher based upon a pre-created rubric (Attachment # 6-Sample Prototype Evaluation).

2) Students will complete a reflection on their prototype after experimenting with it (Attachment # 7-Prototype Reflection).

21st Century Skill(s)

Learning and Innovation Skills

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

  • Solve different kinds of non-familiar problems in both conventional and innovative ways
  • Identify and ask significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutions

Communication and Collaboration

  • Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work, and value the individual contributions made by each team member

21st Century Skill(s) Application

Students will be engaged in a structured problem-solving method that is innovative and collaborative through the practice of the Inspiration and Ideation phases of Design Thinking Methodology. During these two phases, students will be guided through an inquiry, synthesis, and brainstorming process that will require them to use critical thinking skills to clarify the information they gather, leading to the Action phase where they propose better solutions to the problem at hand. In cyclying through the phases of Design Thinking, students are engaging collaboratively in problem-solving and critical thinking. They have to communicate their findings with each other and work together to come up with a solution.

Fellowship Description

I am working with the Innova Squad at Ericsson, which is a team created to help Ercisson become the most innovative company in their field of Telecommunications and Internet Communication Technology. The Innova Squad acts as internal consultants who tackle projects across the company utilizing the Innova Method with the goal of inspiring employees to collaborate and innovate. The Innova Method, which cycles through the phases of "Inspiration, Ideation, and Action," is a structured approach with roots in design thinking methodology that produces repeatable innovation. I am gaining knowledge of design thinking methodology through my work with the team.  I am also learning the communication and collaboration skills needed to engage in the Innova Method.

The connection between the ETP and Fellowship. :

I will be teaching students a simplified version of the Innova Method. I am directly taking the Innovation Cycle of Inspiration, Ideation, and Action that the Innova Squad uses at Ericsson and using it inside my classroom to tackle curriculum related questions. When I first introduce the method to my students, I will be using a PowerPoint with modified content that comes directly from the Innova Squad at Ericsson. Students who are interested in this method can become Design Thinkers in major companies or work as a Design Thinking consultant. Overall, the collaboration, communication, and problem-solving skills that students will engage in through the usage of this method will make them a lot more prepared for and valuable in the business world.

Instructional Plan:

Note: If the formatting of this instructional plan appears skewed, the same plan as a Word document can be found in the Attachments section (file name: Instructional Plan).

This instructional plan was created for a 55 minutes class period. Please adjust timing as needed.

 

DAY 1

 

 

Materials Needed

 

 

For Teacher:

Attachment # 1-Design Thinking Methodology PowerPoint

Attachment # 3-Practice Design Challenge PowerPoint

 

For Students:

Attachment # 2-Guided Note-taking

Attachment # 4-Guided Interview

 

 

~20 minutes

 

(Teach Methodology)

 

 

Introduce students to Design Thinking Methodology through a PowerPoint lecture (Attachment # 1). The PowerPoint will teach students a simplified and structured process of design thinking. Ask students to follow along with the PowerPoint by using the Guided Note-taking handout provided (Attachment # 2).

 

 

~20 minutes

 

(Begin Practice Design Challenge and Complete Interview #1)

 

 

 

Once students have taken notes and learned the process of design thinking, try the process together as a class by using the Practice Design Challenge PowerPoint provided (Attachment # 3). The PowerPoint will guide both students and teacher through the practice Design Challenge. The practice challenge will ask the class to come up with a solution for this question: Design a fool-proof system to prevent cheating on exams in class.

 

The goal is to get up to Slide 6 of this PowerPoint.

The PowerPoint is self-explanatory. Here are some pointers for the slides that will require teacher’s guidance:

Slide 4: This slide will ask the class to discuss who they would want to interview to figure out this challenge of designing a fool-proof system to prevent cheating (possible answers include: a teacher, a student who cheats, a student who does not cheat, etc.).

Slide 6: After students have come up with several possible people to interview, Slide 6 will prompt the class to begin Interview #1 through a Guided Interview process. Each student should be given a Guided Interview handout (Attachment # 4). The teacher will have to role-play a teacher who wants to stop students from cheating in his/her classroom.

Note: Depending on the Design Challenge you create, you might have to role-play different characters if this person is not accessible to students for an actual interview. In a History class for example, the teacher might have to role-play historical characters. You might have to become Marie Antoinette and allow students to interview you as Marie. Another option, if the Interview process is not feasible, is to guide students to research the information you would have obtained through an interview in a different manner. This can be guiding students to primary source documents, texts, websites, video clips, etc. The point of the interview portion of design thinking is to empathize and investigate different perspectives on the question at hand.

 

 

~15 minutes

 

(Complete Storytelling #1)

 

 

After the interview ends, continue to Slide 7 of the PowerPoint. This slide will prompt students to story tell what they heard from the teacher during Interview #1. They will be instructed to post what they heard up on a board using one Post-It per thought/quote.

DAY 2

 

 

Materials Needed

 

 

For Teacher:

Attachment # 3-Practice Design Challenge PowerPoint

 

For Students:

Attachment # 4-Guided Interview

 

 

 

 

~15 minutes

 

(Complete Interview #2)

 

 

 

 

 

Continue to use the Practice Design Challenge PowerPoint (Attachment # 3) to guide students through the design thinking process.

 

Slide 8: This slide will prompt students to begin Interview #2. Teacher will have to role-play a Child Development Psychologist.

 

 

 

 

 

~10 minutes

 

(Complete Storytelling #2)

 

 

 

 

 

After the interview ends, continue to Slide 9 of the PowerPoint. This slide will prompt students to story tell what they heard from the child development psychologist during Interview #2. They will be instructed to post what they heard up on a board using one Post-It per thought/quote.

 

~30 minutes

 

(Synthesize and HMWs)

 

 

Continue to Slide 10 to complete the Synthesis and How Might We (HMW) statements.

 

During Synthesis, have the students look at all the Post-Its and try to move them around and group similar thoughts or issues together.

For example, during Interview #1, the teacher might have said: "I think it's bad that John studies so hard to get good grades, but Tom doesn't study at all and just cheats off of John," and "Why should cheaters who never study get good grades?"  Since both of these quotes refer to the bigger issue of fairness, write "Fairness" down on a Post-It and turn that into a theme/category, then look at all the other thoughts that were posted and see if any of them can fit in this cluster. Repeat this until a few broader themes are created. Other possible themes for this particular Design Challenge might be: Assessing True Learning; Good Testing Environment; etc.

During the How Might We (HMW) phase, have students turn the groupings made during Synthesis into How Might We statements.

For example, if "Fairness" was a theme/category that was created, then a HMW statement might be: "How might we prevent cheating so that fairness is ensured?" Note that what the students are doing during this phase of design thinking is truly figuring out the "Why" of the original Design Challenge. The HMW statements are meant to show that students have thoroughly investigated and thought about the original question and are now able to pinpoint and focus on the core of the issue so that they can brainstorm the best solution.

 

 

 

 

DAY 3

 

 

Materials Needed

 

 

For Teacher:

Attachment # 3-Practice Design Challenge PowerPoint

 

For Students:

Attachment # 5-Brainstorm Tracker

 

 

~40 minutes

 

(Brainstorm)

 

 

Continue to use the Practice Design Challenge PowerPoint (Attachment # 3) to complete the design thinking process. Use Slides 11 to 14 to guide you through the Brainstorming phase.

 

Note the following slides:

 

Slide 12: This slide will prompt students to partner up and use the Brainstorm Tracker (Attachment # 5) to track each other’s participation during this phase.

 

Slide 13: This slide will prompt students to take all the HMWs and narrow them down to 3 to focus on.

 

Slide 14: This slide will guide students through the brainstorm process, using the 3 HMWs they have just selected.

 

 

~15 minutes

 

(Prototype)

 

 

End class by moving through Slides 15 and 16, which will tell students to agree (as a class) on the best solution to prototype and actually use tomorrow during a quiz on design thinking methodology.

 

Note: The class’ decision on the final cheating prevention prototype might be a physical product or it can be more abstract and be a set of rules that must be enforced. Teacher will have to adjust to whatever final prototype the class decides on and use it during the quiz on Day 4.

DAY 4

 

 

Materials Needed

 

 

For Teacher:

Attachment # 6-Sample Prototype Evaluation

 

For Students:

Attachment # 8-Design Thinking Quiz

Attachment # 7-Prototype Reflection

 

 

~20 minutes

 

(Test Prototype)

 

 

Hand out Design Thinking Quiz (Attachment # 8) to students so that they can test out their cheating prevention prototype.

 

~35 minutes

 

(Prototype Reflection)

 

 

Have students individually complete a Prototype Reflection (Attachment # 7) and then discuss as a class the Design Thinking experience as a whole.

 

Teacher can use Sample Prototype Evaluation (Attachment # 6) as a rubric to assess the students’ prototypes.

 

 

IMPORTANT FINAL NOTE: The Practice Design Challenge here was created to teach the design thinking process to students as a whole class activity. When you create content related design challenges, students should be divided into groups of 5 or 6 and each of these teams of 5-6 should tackle the design challenge together through the methodology of Inspiration, Ideation, and Action together.

Additional Instructional Context

This lesson uses a very broad Design Challenge question (i.e. how to prevent cheating) as a way to teach design thinking methodology to the students. It allows students to practice this methodology using a question that is familiar to the students and applicable in every classroom. Once the students learn the methodology, the teacher can create content related Design Challenges to make the curriculum more collaborative and exciting.

Here are some sample Design Challenges for History teachers:

Design the best form of government.

How might we solve the issue of child labor in the times of the Industrial Revolution?

Redesign the imperialism experience so that the lives of the imperialized will be better.

Design a more humane way to execute people during the French Revolution Era.

How might we create a totalitarian state?

Design a commercial promoting the United States or Soviet Union during the Cold War Era.

Supplies:

Supplies:

1) Post-Its

2) Foam-Core Boards (or designated areas to post Post-Its)

Handouts needed to be copied for students:

Attachments # 2-Guided Note-taking, # 4-Guided Interview, # 5-Brainstorm Tracker, # 7-Prototype Reflection, and # 8-Design Thinking Quiz

Bibliographic or other resources you used in creating this curriculum:

Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators. Ideo, n.d. Web. 9 Jul 2012. http://dschool.stanford.edu/k12/stories.php.

k12 laboratory. Stanford Institute of Design Thinking, n.d. Web. 9 Jul 2012. http://www.ideo.com/work/toolkit-for-educators/.

Kelley, Tom. The Ten Faces of Innovation. New York: Doubleday, 2005. Print.

Use Our Methods. Stanford Institute of Design Thinking, n.d. Web. 9 Jul 2012. http://dschool.stanford.edu/use-our-methods/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Attachments: